TREAT Newsletter Wet Season January - March 2010

Notices by email

Not all events are listed in TREAT News. If members want to be notified by email when a planting, field day or other event is coming up, please send Doug Burchill, our secretary, an email to say you wish to receive these notices. He will then add your email address to his list.

Doug's email is:

Wet Season Plantings

Date and TimeLocationCollaboration No of Trees
Sat Jan 30 7:30amTarzali, Hogan Rd Seisa's Malanda Landcare/ TREAT2,300
Sat Feb 6th 7:30amPeterson Creek Mete's TREAT/ QPWS1,500
Sat Feb 13th 7:30amLake Barrine Emms' Private/ TREAT2,000
Sat Feb 20th 7:30amTarzali, Kenny Rd McCaffrey's Private/ TREAT1,500
Sat Feb 27th 7:30amPeterson Creek Williams' TREAT/ QPWS1,800
Sun Mar 7th 8:00amLeslie Creek Mark Gallo's BCC/ TREAT1,000

Bring a hat, sunscreen and water, plus gloves and a trowel if you have them.
For any further details contact Barbara Lanskey on 4091 4468.
Check the local papers for possible changes due to weather conditions.

Come to the Plantings

Barb Lanskey

There are only 6 community plantings scheduled for this wet season so come along and take part if you can. It's always a rewarding morning planting trees and TREAT organises a barbecue for everyone afterwards.


The first planting is near Tarzali on January 30th and is on a cattle property owned by the Seisa Aboriginal Community which is at the tip of Cape York. Young people come down and work on the property, and we hope some will be able to come down for the planting. The property is managed by David and Penny Shaw from a nearby property.

Malanda Landcare, with the Eacham Shire Community Revegetation Unit, had a planting in 2005 to combat erosion at the top of a creek, preventing a dam from being silted up.

Malanda Landcare have again secured funding through the Australian Government's Envirofund program for a planting of about 3000 trees on the major creek on the property to join two areas of riparian forest. This creek has riparian forest down to its confluence with the Johnstone River. The Tablelands Community Revegetation Unit has already planted 700 trees in December which could be reached with irrigation.

The site is in a paddock off Hogan Road, about 4km from Tarzali. It is best to enter Hogan Road from the Tarzali end.

Peterson Creek - Mete's

This planting, on 6th February, will complete the revegetation of the Mete's section of Peterson Creek. Besides planting in a new area, the planting will involve some infilling in the areas planted last February where many trees have been lost due to dry weather, soil conditions etc. The total area is generally above flood level, and TREAT volunteers will be fertilising the previously planted areas on a Friday morning at the end of January. The site is accessed from Hunt Road off Peeramon Road.


Carolyn and Philip Emms are creating habitat for wildlife on their Lake Barrine property and over the last 15 months have planted about 15,000 trees with assistance from TREAT and CVA (Conservation Volunteers Australia). Some of these trees were planted at the western end of Donaghy's Corridor and others adjacent to the eastern edge of the National Park. Maintenance of so many trees is a big issue, but there are apparently few losses as the trees were watered during the dry and have had regular maintenance.

The planting on 13th February will again be adjacent to the National Park, but will be part of a larger block of 5.5 acres. The site is accessed from Pressley Road off the Gillies Highway.


Mark and Angela McCaffrey are using their property to create a wildlife corridor between a large remnant of approximately 1000 hectares between Kenny and Merragallan Roads and the World Heritage Area at Longlands Gap. They started planting in 2004 with a TREAT planting of 500 trees and have been planting 1000-2000 trees a year since to now total 8000 trees. Some assistance has been obtained from the Vegetation Incentives Program, and they are now in the 4th year of a 5 year program.

This planting will be an opportunity to revisit the property and see how the corridor is progressing. The site is accessed from Kenny Road off the Malanda-Millaa Millaa Road.

Peterson Creek - Williams'

This planting on 27th February will begin the revegetation of the northern bank of Peterson Creek at the western end of the Williams' property. The area to be planted is low-lying and already has some regrowth. The site is accessed from the end of Mather Road, Yungaburra.

Leslie Creek - Mark Gallo's

Last year TREAT helped Barron Catchment Care (BCC, formerly BRICMA) with 2 plantings on Mark Gallo's property at the junction of the Barron River and Leslie Creek, as part of the Green Corridor program. It may be remembered there was a huge erosion washout and an area of coral tree close to where the barbecue was held. During the dry season the majority of coral tree was removed (leaving the stumps to help hold the bank) and the washout was fixed with about 40 truckloads of rock/clay mix.

Because of the dry year, planting of the area was left till this wet season and this is the planting site for 7th March. Planting of about 1000 trees will bring the total planted on the Gallo property to approximately 15,000 trees.

The site is accessed from Coleman West Road off McKeown Road.


TREAT was unsuccessful in its bids to secure funding last year from the Australian Government's Caring For Our Country grants program and their Community Action Grants program.

Consequently, TREAT is fortunate that QPWS are doing the site preparation and layout of trees for both of the Peterson Creek plantings this season as in-kind support for the project. The corridor connects two National Park fragments and QPWS and TREAT have always worked collaboratively on the project, but at times like this TREAT really appreciates our partnership.

TREAT also appreciates the financial support from Terrain NRM, who this year are again providing funding to cover the cost of maintenance of our plantings. To date, most grant programs have been for a period of only 12-18 months and Terrain NRM has been funding maintenance of our plantings beyond this period. To reduce our costs the fertilising component of the maintenance this year is being carried out by TREAT volunteers on a Friday morning.

Inside this issue

The Rainforest Classroom

Green Corridor Monitoring

Observations of TK use of the Peterson Creek Corridor

Bird Use of Revegetated Sites

Nursery News

19th SER International Conference

Award for Peterson Creek

Carbon Sinks and Climate Change

Fruit Collection Diary

This newsletter is kindly sponsored by Biotropica Australia Pty Ltd.»

The Rainforest Classroom

Reforesting Our Future With Butcher's Creek State School

Lana Hepburn

TREAT does so much wonderful work every year growing thousands of rainforest trees and seeing them through from their early days in the nursery to a new home, usually by a waterway somewhere on the Atherton Tablelands. While many readers would be aware of this core work, what you may not know is that TREAT's involvement in ensuring the future of rainforest biodiversity does not end there. TREAT is actively providing environmental education to schools, farmers, local government groups, businesses and community members. In early November TREAT's education program, TREAT on TAP, spent a very rewarding day out with Butcher's Creek State School. I look forward to regaling you with tales of this day, but first I would like to take this opportunity to tell you why I think this kind of work is so important.

The very fact that TREAT is a community group, with a diverse membership and an equally diverse knowledge base, means that it provides an ideal forum for the exchange of information about many things, including how to design and maintain a tree planting! We share information about different tree species, fruits, flowers and rainforest animals, stories about the successes (and failures) we encounter, ideas about what works best for us in different situations and in different environments, and our enthusiasm for making a difference to our local (and global) environment. This leads to the empowerment of individuals and we can take ownership of the future of our forests as we gain and share the information we need to protect and restore them.

Let's go back to the 2nd of November, a Monday morning after a weekend of rain over at Butcher's Creek. TREAT volunteers, the QPWS site prep crew, school grounds staff, teachers, students and some parents gathered together to start the day by planting 60 trees along the back fence line of the school grounds. After a great explanation by Barbara, the children had a great time putting trees in the ground, followed by applying lots of mulch then watering each one from buckets they had brought along. We then left the field and went inside to share some more information about rainforests. Butcher's Creek teacher Sue Quinn had approached TREAT about having an 'expert' talk to the students as part of a unit they were studying on climate change and sustainability. As I previously mentioned, TREAT has a wealth of human resources with different backgrounds, and the word was passed to me (for those that didn't know, I am currently studying a Masters in Education after completing a Science degree). It is worth noting here that the TREAT on TAP program remains flexible, and we were able to develop new activities to fit the schools current focus.

Our classroom session focused mostly on some of our special endemic species like the Lemuroid Ringtail Possum and Lumholtz's Tree Kangaroo. We discussed their currently restricted distribution (high altitude, lower temperature rainforests), and explored how this might change with rising temperatures (shown below), thus highlighting the importance of planting and protecting native wildlife corridors.

mountain top - rising temps

We then took it all back outside to play a game adapted from the Wet Tropics Management Authority's Rainforest Explorer classroom resources (Rainforest Explorer). The game, called Tree Kangaroos, was a hit! Children took on the roles of trees (2 children facing each other holding hands) and tree kangaroos (standing in the trees), and in the spirit of musical chairs, they moved between an ever reducing number of trees. To really demonstrate the point at one stage a single tree, stretched to capacity, contained 5 tree kangaroos! This was all livened up even further with the introduction of a road (delineated by string) and a car obstacle played out like 'red red rover'. All in all a lot of fun was had, trees got planted, information was shared and concepts were demonstrated. Through all of that, the highlight for me remains the one boy who spoke up during the classroom session and said "Miss, I'm actually learning something". Now that he is newly empowered with knowledge, I hope he may go on and share it with someone else, as we all can.

Green Corridor Monitoring

Penny Scott

green corridor monitoring

Figure 1. Transect Layout, Dimensions and Components

The Green Corridor has just embarked on its environmental monitoring program which will provide information on the growth of the trees, the structure of the emerging forest, species diversity, canopy cover, new recruitment and carbon sequestration. Given the wide range of Green Corridor sites, having a consistent, long-term monitoring program will provide valuable information about environmental rehabilitation.

The Green Corridor is adopting the methodology that Degree Celsius and Terrain have developed for measuring carbon sequestration. The methodology is based on the "TRAPS - Transect Recording and Processing System" used across Queensland for permanent monitoring (Back P. V., Anderson E. R., Burrows W. H., Kennedy M. K. K. & Carter J. O., 1997; Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Rockhampton). TRAPS was adapted for the dense rainforest situations of our region. The Degree Celsius monitoring methodology uses biodiversity components of the "Monitoring Revegetation Projects in Rainforest Landscapes: Toolkit Version 2" (John Kanowski, Carla P. Catterall, Kylie Freebody and Debra. A. Harrison) - commonly referred to as the Biodiversity Toolkit - which was developed to assist landholders, community groups and restoration practitioners record the details of their revegetation projects, assess their condition and monitor their outcomes for biodiversity.

The monitoring will involve establishing a number of permanent transects in each of the sites as they reach 3 years of age. Each tree within that transect will be measured for its diameter at breast height (dbh), identified according to species and located in space. This level of detail allows for continuous tracking of the growth of each particular individual over time. The sites are marked with star pickets at each end, as well as with GPS references and photographs taken down the transect mid line. As each tree within the transect is located on the data sheet in terms of its distance along the transect and out from the transect mid line, it is easy to relocate the plot even if the star pickets are removed.

The transect consists of a number of 'nested plots', enabling more detailed information, such as the number of new recruits and seedlings, to be collected in the smaller areas. In the largest plot, only trees over a certain dbh are included in the measurement. The nested plots are of the same dimension as the Biodiversity Toolkit, and the data collection methods correspond with the requirements of this approach. This means that despite differences in plot layout and data collection methods, data collected through Green Corridor monitoring can be entered into Terrain's regional monitoring database which is designed to manage data from the application of the Biodiversity Toolkit.

The transects will be measured annually, in addition to the regular site inspection processes. We have already established transects in our Freshwater site, and used this exercise to train the Green Corridor revegetation team in the methodology. It proved remarkably successful - and efficient! Although a lot of detailed information is being gathered, the approach is streamlined and straightforward, and requires little training in its application. Establishing and assessing each transect takes about one hour. The team really enjoyed the break from the normal duties of spraying, planting, digging holes etc.

Overview of Transect Layout, Dimensions and Components

Number codes in the description below refer to the coded plots in the diagram - Figure 1.

1. Central 50m transect line along which the following survey components are recorded;

2. DBH Nested plot 1: 150 m2 (3X50m) plot extending 3 metres on the LEFT hand side (LHS) of transect line and following the entire 50 metre length - the dbh of stems between 2.5cm dbh and 9.9 cm are recorded within this area; stems under 2.5cm dbh but over 1 metre high are tallied.

3. DBH Nested plot 2: 300 m2 (6X50m) plot extending 3 metres on BOTH sides (LHS + RHS) of the transect line and following the entire 50 metre length; the dbh of all stems between 10 and 19.9 cm dbh are recorded within this area for the entire 50 metre length. Dead trees between 10 and 19.9 cm dbh tallied.

4. DBH Nested plot 3: 500m2 (10X50m) plot extending 5 metres on BOTH sides of the transect line and following the entire 50 metre length; the dbh of all stems 20cm dbh and above recorded for the entire 50 metre length. Dead trees over 20 cm dbh tallied.

5. Biodiversity Assessment quadrats - large: total of ~300 m2 in 3 10X10 m quadrats (often estimated as 5 m radius) - with central points at 5, 25 and 45 metres along the transect; Presence/ absence of life forms and canopy cover recorded.

6. Biodiversity Assessment quadrats - small: total size of 3 m2 in 3 1X1 m quadrats - with central points at 5, 25 and 45 metres along the transect; ground cover recorded.

7. Woody debris assessment: along the entire 50 metres, tally recording of woody debris that the transect tape intersects in size classes.

Source: Degree Celsius Field Guide: prepared by P. Scott and N. Preece-2008

Observations of Tree Kangaroo Use of the Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor

Simon Burchill

Seeing two Tree Kangaroos (TKs) in the TREAT planted trees was certainly a highlight of the August 2009 TREAT field day at the Burchill property, but it was only one of 15 days on which I saw TKs during August 2009. From their behaviour I consider that I was looking at an adult female and an out-of-pouch juvenile of unknown sex.

In my work on the different areas of revegetation around my parents' property, wildlife sightings are not uncommon, and include platypus, echidna, carpet pythons, water dragons, frogs etc. However it was a real surprise to see a TK on the property given the comparatively young age of the plantings. My first sighting of a TK was on 11 December 2008 at around 6:30pm, with two further sightings over the next two days (see Table 1). The TK was in an Elaeocarpus grandis and had a good sight of me long before I saw it. When I got too close to the tree, it jumped down and headed south through the planting along the road edge. This area was planted by TREAT in 1994 with various infill plantings since, and it had suffered considerable damage from Cyclone Larry (March 2006).

Table 1 Tree Kangaroo sightings at Burchill property, 2008-2009.

DateTree speciesYear of planting # of TKTree dbh* (cm)
11/12/2008Elaeocarpus grandis TREAT 1994123.8
12/12/2008Casuarina cunninghamiana TREAT 1994123.8
13/12/2008Eucalyptus pellita TREAT 1994124.5
14/2/2009Melaleuca sp TREAT 1994230.4
30/7/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998225.1 (19.3)
31/7/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998224.1
7/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998225.1 (19.3)
11/8/2009Alphitonia petriei TREAT 1998 217.5
12/8/2009Eucalyptus pellita TREAT 1998234.2
14/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998232.5
15/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998229.1
16/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998225.4
20/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998224.1
21/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998229.1
22/8/2009Acacia celsa TREAT 1998117.8 (15.7)
23/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998233.5
24/8/2009Acacia celsa TREAT 1998121.4
25/8/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998217.7 (7.5)
26/8/2009Eucalyptus pellita TREAT 1998234.2
29/8/2009Casuarina cunninghamiana TREAT 1998233.1
31/8/2009Acacia celsa TREAT 1998122.1
1/9/2009Flindersia acuminata TREAT 1998110.0
3/9/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998117.7 (7.5)
4/9/2009E. grandis TREAT 1998117.7 (7.5)

* Numbers in brackets in the dbh (diameter at breast height) column are for multi-trunked trees, the next biggest trunk

There was a total of 24 sightings, 13 in Elaeocarpus grandis. The number of sightings in E. grandis was no surprise given it is a preferred food plant for TKs in general (Coombes pers. comm.), and this year the E. grandis was fruiting particularly abundantly. Karen Coombes (pers. comm. and PhD dissertation 2005) found no correlation between tree dbh, tree height and TK use of the tree. I provide the tree dbh figures merely as an indication of the range of tree sizes the TKs were using.

In terms of habitat quality it is worth noting that this area does have a range of species that were not included in the original planting, including ferns (mostly still small), gingers (Alpinia caerulea), and vines, in particular Millaa Millaa vine (Elaeagnus triflora), either naturally recruited or planted to increase diversity in the site.

Certainly there would appear to be a correlation between the amount of time I spend in maintenance of revegetated areas and the number and species of wildlife I see. However I certainly would not have expected to see TKs quite so soon, but then this is partly what the building of wildlife corridors is about. So TREAT's work on the Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor has provided some information on TK use of revegetation of different ages.

All of my TK sightings on my parents' property have been either in the 1998 TREAT planting or (the first 4 times) in the roadside 1994 planting. One sighting was in an area I had started planting in 1998 which was not planted by TREAT. The nearest remnant forest that I have seen TKs in is Fred Williams' which is 600m downstream to the west. The distance to the Curtain Fig National Park is approximately 1.6km and the distance from the road edge trees upstream (east) to a younger (2006) TREAT planting is approximately 220m (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Map showing detail of the Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor plantings and TK sightings

Map of TK sightings

In terms of my observation skills I did notice that I got "better" in locating the TKs towards the end of August, partly as I increased my knowledge of the trees in which I had previously seen the TKs, and partly as my spotting skills increased. I did notice that TKs did seem to use trees that they could hide in, usually trees with multiple trunks, or trees with large or dense canopies.

I later found that the reason I saw only one TK from 1st September onwards was that one of the TKs was possibly killed by a dog. I found the remains of one TK on 6th September, which I believe to be the out-of-pouch young.

Considering the population pressure to prompt a TK to move to this area of revegetation I would speculate that the damage to Fred Williams' remnant from Cyclone Larry contributed to a reduction in the food supply such that one of the "younger" TKs possibly less established in a home range, went looking for a new territory.

At the November Tree Kangaroo and Mammal Group meeting, Kylie Freebody talked about monitoring of revegetation areas. During questions, Carla Catterall asked what was required if revegetation was being undertaken to provide TK habitat? The answer in short was that no one really knew. Certainly any data collected from areas of revegetation where TKs are present and also where TKs are still absent, in particular if near areas of forest with TKs resident, could contribute to a greater understanding of TK habitat requirements. It could also be interesting to look at areas that have natural regrowth but were cleared in the past, for example more than 40 years ago, and compare the tree species present in areas with and without TKs.

TKs are notorious for being difficult to observe feeding, as they often just sit still and look at the people looking at them. I did notice some indications that the TKs were feeding on Elaeocarpus grandis, due to the fruit on the ground, Celerywood (Polyscias elegans) as some of the small plants 1 to 2 m high had leaves stripped off in the mornings, and possibly Sarsaparilla (Alphitonia petriei).


The safe option to provide TK habitat through revegetation is to provide as close as possible the pre-existing habitat and aim for a diverse range of species. It is not necessary to use a high biodiversity planting, so long as a framework species mix is established to encourage recruitment of a diverse range of species, with species such as E. grandis to provide TK food in the short term. I would suggest that feral dog control is also necessary to provide safer habitat for Tree Kangaroos.


Coombes, Karen Elizabeth (2005). The ecology and utilisation of Lumholtz's tree kangaroos Dendrolagus lumholtzi (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), on the Atherton Tablelands, far north Queensland. PhD thesis, James Cook University, Townsville. Accessed from:

Bird use of revegetated sites along a creek connecting rainforest remnants

Amanda Freeman, Alastair Freeman, Simon Burchill

CSIRO PUBLISHING - Emu December 2009

Visit the website:


The success of the Peterson Creek Revegetation Project, near Yungaburra, Queensland, in providing habitat for rainforest-associated birds was monitored for the first seven years of the project from 1999. Regular 20 minute area surveys showed that small and large remnants and plantings all differed in their avian communities. Major contributors to these differences were a suite of rainforest-associated birds that were more abundant in the remnants. Ordination showed that avian communities in plantings 4-7 years after their establishment were generally more similar to those in remnants than were the bird communities of younger plantings. Avian communities in the oldest of the planted sites all changed markedly through time and became more similar to the avian communities in the closest remnant sites. Rainforest-associated birds were observed in plantings as early as 1-3 years after their establishment and some rainforest dependent species were observed as early as 3-4 years after establishment. Of the rainforest-associated bird species observed in the remnants, 55% were also recorded in the plantings at some stage during the study. These results suggest that the project will be successful in providing a corridor between formerly isolated forest patches, at least for some species.

Nursery News

Nick Stevens

Well, after a short break over the holiday period, a return to the nursery sees us with much work to do. There are a few weeds here and there that have had a bit of a chance to get their heads up whilst not under the eagle-eyed scrutiny of TREAT volunteer weeders and there are plenty of batches of seed coming in for processing to become the next generation of seedlings. And then there are the trees - our reason for being, so to speak - and there are plenty of them ready for planting. Some need a bit of pruning, but generally it's planting time!

If you are planning a restoration project of your own this planting season, make sure that if you haven't already discussed your project with TREAT that you get your application for trees in as soon as possible. As in previous years, on approval TREAT can allocate up to 300 trees per year for worthwhile projects, so get your applications in now.

Just a reminder, if you have been successful in your application for trees, then after you plant, could you please return nursery trays and tubes to the nursery for re-use.

If you refer to the planting schedule, you'll notice that there are no scheduled plantings on QPWS estate this season. This is not an oversight and there will be some planting on local National Parks, but they will be smaller plantings and will fit into the planting program as Friday morning plantings, during March and April.

Season's Greetings to you all from QPWS and the nursery staff.

19th SER International Conference August 2009 Perth WA

'Making Change in a Changing World'

Compiled by Larry Crook, Team Leader,
Tablelands Community Revegetation Unit, Tablelands Regional Council.

SERI buzz words: novel ecosystem, triage, invasive alien species, resilience.

Founded in 1988, SER is the Society for Ecological Restoration, an international non-profit organization based in Tuscon, Arizona, with the mission of

promoting ecological restoration as a means of sustaining the diversity of life on Earth and re-establishing an ecologically healthy relationship between nature and culture.

SER does not get involved in restoration projects but facilitates dialogue between restorationists via an annual conference, books and supporting research journals. The next get together is in a castle reeking of Popes, Knights of Templar and Da Vinci Codes in Avignon, France.

In Perth there were around 400 sessions over two days to choose from (8 concurrent meeting rooms with around 25 sessions a day in each, including a number of workshops), with over 350 speakers from 52 countries. Speakers from the Atherton Tablelands were Tim Curran (School for Field Studies (SFS) - Using plant functional traits to explain frost susceptibility in rainforest restoration), David Manahan (SFS - Water quality, land use and restoration in the upper Barron River Catchment), and Kylie Freebody (Marine Tropical Science Research Facility - Planting models and their revegetation outcomes in the Australian upland Wet Tropics: a retrospective assessment). Day 1 was an easy choice with speakers only in the main hall. Surprisingly, the next two days of heavy duty sessions did not cause much of a quandary as to who's presentation to attend because the streams of different disciplines in restoration were so delineated. The catering was mouthwateringly superb!

The overriding idea of the conference was the notion of the novel ecosystem. Human activity has caused imbalances and changes in our terrestrial biomes, substantially altering basic Earth processes. Local, regional and global cycles of key nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and the water cycle at similar scales, play a fundamental role in determining the abundance and distribution of terrestrial biomes, and control biodiversity. Soil is the key terrestrial biogeochemical element. Human induced nitrogen emissions now exceed the annual flux of all natural sources combined, soil erosion exceeds soil formation and the global water system has been re-engineered to serve human needs. Consequently there are subtle and not so subtle shifts in the species make-up of ecosystems. As species shuffle about trying to find the conditions that serve them best, succeeding or dying out, they change the historical sense of the biodiversity. As restorationists, we face challenging questions. Do we persist in maintaining the historical nature of that ecosystem (as we do now) or do we interpret nature's moves, adjust our species mix and accommodate them as a novel ecosystem? That is to say, do we accept the invasive species that are colonizing so readily in systems where they, historically, shouldn't be? Are there restoration thresholds where we can't go back? Climate change forces fauna distribution changes and are invasive alien species needed to assist the fauna? Should restoration become a hybrid of the historical and the novel ecosystems? Is there a danger that by adopting the novel ecosystem model that it will lead to global homogenisation?

Invasive species are responding to temperature change and soil moisture change. Should we be designing restoration in collaboration with climate change models and soil modifications? Ecosystems are also responding to delays, and in some cases, non-events of frugivore migrating birds. Migrations are being delayed by warming climates and there are records in Europe where some bird species have stopped migrating, or have missed a season of migrating. The changes are more pronounced in Europe and North America, because of the divergent climate extremes and greater research.

Restoration ecologist Jim Harris of Cranfield University ponders the quandary: 'These changes have profound implications for the future of restoration ecology. On one hand, they represent severe constraints to restoration potential in many circumstances, limiting the prospects for return to pre-disruption reference conversion. At the same time, these changes elevate the importance of restoration ecology as a means of reversing these ecosystem changes to ensure sustainable human well-being, and in many cases direct intervention in terms of abiotic components have to be made before restoration projects can progress'.

Richard J Hobbs, University of Western Australia, queries the goals of restoration. Rapid changes bring out increasing decisions on the degree to which restoration should intervene in altering ecosystems. Be it restorative or preventative? Traditional restoration back to pre-existing conditions may become possible only where concerted effort over long periods is feasible, and may become one of the tools in a broader "intervention ecology".

Additional notes

Since 1960, nitrogen has doubled and phosphorus has tripled in agricultural areas. CO2 emissions have increased by 50% since 1959. The added CO2 in the atmosphere changes the biochemical relationships in C3 and C4 plants.

Fire can reset the process to zero, allowing new species to colonise those species that are consequences of change in temperature, soil moisture, etc.

There were some 'hard tack' examples of restoration, such as a small group in Argentina restoring cleared mountain terrain without government funding (and consequently a very low trees per hectare rate) and possibly facing the prospect of their trees being cut down for firewood before they had a chance to grow. (Similarly, many of our plantings face being chomped by cattle if fences are down or where cattle are allowed in to eat the grass because of no post-funding maintenance).

Triage, a term used in hospitals meaning to deal with the worst injury first, has been applied to restoration. Where should we concentrate our efforts: erosion, topsoil loss, run-off, habitat, etc, etc?

Diane Lardon from USA pointed out the three interactive pillars of sustainability;

Nicole Munro from Victoria discussed funding, asking is it better to direct funds to improve the condition of a patch of forest (quality) or do more cover across the landscape (quantity)? Her bird studies showed that richness increased significantly when condition was improved and that block plantings (preferably around a remnant tree) were of higher benefit as habitat than narrow corridor plantings. Nicole also showed that fauna traveled to blocks without the aid of corridors. This talk had an influence on the placement of the planting at the Seisa property coming up on January 30th. The question there was, should we begin planting a corridor down the side creek from the 2005 planting and some regrowth forest to the forested major creek, or fill in a large space that separates forest on the major creek. We went with the latter.

In the restoration research business it is handy if your surname begins with an H. Hobbs and Harris have been mentioned. Another bloke to direct your follow-up reading to is Eric Higgs (School of Environmental Studies, University of Victoria).

Award for Peterson Creek

Barb Lanskey

BCC Award

TREAT and landowners along Peterson Creek were recently honoured by Barron Catchment Care (BCC) with an award for their revegetation efforts along Peterson Creek. The award was presented to TREAT and the landowners at a ceremony on 14th December at Peterson Creek on the Burchill's property. Simon Burchill made the application for the award. The trophy was received by him on behalf of TREAT, and by Doug Burchill and Bill Palumbo on behalf of the landowners.

The occasion was attended by various BCC committee members, BCC sponsors, Joan Wright, TREAT committee members and Nick Stevens from QPWS. Keith Gould spoke about the award, this being the third year it has been presented. A few other short speeches were made and then the award's perpetual trophy was passed on by Richard Standen, last year's winner. The trophy is a beautiful framed leadlighting image of a platypus. Afterwards Simon and Doug led a short walk along the edge of the revegetation before everyone left.

Carbon Sinks and Climate Change

Forests in the Fight Against Global Warming

Publisher Edward Elgar, September 2009

Colin A.G. Hunt, School of Economics, University of Queensland

colins book

Reforestation and avoiding deforestation are methods of harnessing nature to tackle global warming - the greatest challenge facing humankind. In this book, Colin Hunt deals comprehensively with the present and future role of forests in climate change policy and practice.

The author provides signposts for the way ahead in climate change policy and offers practical examples of forestry's role in climate change mitigation in both developed and tropical developing countries. Chapters on measuring carbon in plantations, their biodiversity benefits and potential for biofuel production complement the analysis. He also discusses the potential for forestry in climate change policy in the United States and other countries where policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have been foreshadowed. The author employs scientific and socio-economic analysis and lays bare the complexity of forestry markets. A review of the workings of carbon markets, based both on the Kyoto Protocol and voluntary participation, provides a foundation from which to explore forestry's role. Emphasis is placed on acknowledging how forests' idiosyncrasies affect the design of markets for sequestered carbon. The realization of forestry's potential in developed countries depends on the depth of cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, together with in-country rules on forestry. An increase in funding for carbon retention in tropical forests is an immediate imperative, but complexities dictate that the sources of finance will likely be dedicated funds rather than carbon markets.

This timely and comprehensive book will be of great value to any reader interested in climate change. Policy-makers within international agencies and governments, academics and students in the fields of geography, economics, science policy, forestry, development studies as well as carbon market participants and forest developers in the private sector will find it especially useful.

To order the book go to: Edward Elgar website.

Colin Hunt has been an active member of TREAT since 2000 and is a former vice-president. In the book Colin acknowledges the valuable insights he gained through TREAT on all facets of restoration, from seed collection to site maintenance. A chapter in the book on measuring and valuing the carbon in forests is based on student assisted research by Colin, on the Atherton Tablelands in 2006 and 2007, while a staff member at the School for Field Studies.

Fruit Collection Diary October-December 2009

SpeciesCommon NameCollection Location/
Regional Ecosystem
Agathis robusta Queensland Kauri Pine7.8.3
Alstonia scholaris Milky Pine7.8.1
Athertonia diversifolia Atherton Oak7.8.2, 7.8.3
Austrobaileya scandens Austrobaileya7.8.1
Austromuellera trinervia Mueller's Silky Oak7.8.2
Beilschmedia tooram Coach Walnut7.8.2
Canarium australianum Scrub Turpentine7.3.10
Carallia brachiata Carallia7.3.10, 7.8.1
Cardwellia sublimis Northern Silky Oak7.3.10, 7.8.1, 7.8.2, 7.8.3, 7.8.4
Carnarvonia araliifolia var araliifolia Caledonian Oak7.8.2
Castanospora alphandii Brown Tamarind7.8.2
Cerbera inflata Grey Milkwood7.8.3
Cryptocarya angulata Ivory Laurel7.8.2
Cryptocarya grandis Cinnamon Laurel7.8.4
Cryptocarya hypospodia Northern Laurel7.8.3
Cryptocarya mackinnoniana Rusty Laurel7.8.2
Cryptocarya triplinervis Brown Laurel7.3.10
Cupaniopsis flagelliformis Brown Tuckeroo7.8.4
Cycas media Cycad7.3.10
Darlingia darlingiana Brown Silky Oak7.3.10
Darlingia ferruginea Rose Silky Oak7.8.2, 7.8.4
Davidsonia pruriens Davidson's Plum7.8.4
Diploglottis diphyllostegia Northern Tamarind7.8.3
Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum Ivory Mahogany7.3.10
Dysoxylum mollissimum ssp molle Miva Mahogany7.8.3
Elaeocarpus largiflorens Tropical Quandong7.8.2
Endiandra bessaphila Blush Walnut7.8.2
Euroschinus falcata Pink Poplar7.8.2, 7.8.3
Ficus crassipes Banana Fig7.8.2,7.8.4
Ficus superba Superb Fig7.8.4
Ficus variegata Variegated Fig7.8.1
Ficus virens var sublanceolata Banyan7.3.10
Ficus virgata Fig7.8.1
Flindersia bourjotiana Silver Ash7.3.10, 7.8.3
Flindersia brayleyana Queensland Maple7.8.2, 7.8.3, 7.8.4
Flindersia pimenteliana Maple Silkwood7.8.2, 7.8.4
Ganophyllum falcatum Scaly Ash7.8.1
Glochidion harveyanum Buttonwood7.8.3
Glochidion harveyanum var pubescens Buttonwood7.8.2
Glochidion hylandii Hyland's Buttonwood7.8.2
Guioa lasioneura Silky Tamarind7.8.2
Laccospadix australasica Atherton Mist Palm7.12.16
Litsea fawcetiana Bollywood7.8.2
Litsea leefeana Bollywood7.8.2, 7.8.4
Lomatia fraxinifolia Lomatia Silky Oak7.8.2, 7.8.4
Macaranga tanarius Macaranga7.3.10
Myristica insipida Nutmeg7.8.1
Podocarpus dispermus Brown Pine7.8.2
Pouteria castanosperma Saffron Boxwood7.8.2, 7.8.4
Rhysotoechia robertsonii Roberts Tuckeroo7.8.1, 7.8.3
Rockinghamia angustifolia Kamala7.8.4
Syzygium boonjee Boonjee Satinash7.8.2
Syzygium cormiflorum Bumpy Satinash7.8.2, 7.8.3
Syzygium luehmannii Cherry Satinash7.8.2
Syzygium papyraceum Paperbark Satinash7.8.4
Terminalia sericocarpa Damson7.3.10, 7.8.3
Toechima erythrocarpum Pink Tamarind7.8.3
Xanthostemon chrysanthus Golden Penda7.3.10

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