TREAT Newsletter Dry Season July - September 2008

Coming Events

Barb Lanskey

Date and TimeEventLocation
Saturday 26th July 1:30pm Field Day Topaz Jeremy Russell-Smith's
Saturday 9th August 2 pm Field Day Gadgarra Don & Jill Crawford's
Friday 19th September 7:30 pm TREAT AGM Yungaburra Community Hall
Saturday 27th September 1:30pmField DayRavenshoe Massey Creek
Saturday 18th October 11am - 3pmOpen DayMalanda Winfield Park

Topaz field day

This field day will be held at Jeremy Russell-Smith and Diane Lucas' property on Candow Road, about 1km past the main Topaz settlement. I visited recently to check it out and Jeremy showed me two main areas where they've been planting trees. This took us on a walk of about 2km. It was an easy grade walk with uneven ground in some places. The trees have been planted 3 metres apart. Most of the property is rainforest and the walk goes through some of it. It is interesting to see the recruitment from the forest and problems Jeremy has with some constantly wet areas.

Jeremy and Di work in Darwin and the field day will be led by Kylie Freebody and Larry Crook from the Tablelands Community Revegetation Unit (TCRU) at Winfield Park. TCRU have been involved in the plantings. Afterwards, TREAT will provide an afternoon tea which will be held at the shed on the property.

Field day at Crawford's

Don and Jill Crawford have been planting trees on their property on Gadgarra Road near Lake Eacham since 1999. The property was initially a mass of weeds but Don and Jill have changed all that. They now have some well managed rainforest down to Maroobi Creek, an agroforestry plot and a large grass area. TREAT have helped with a few of the plantings and this is a great opportunity to see how things have progressed. Don and Jill set up their own nursery for revegetation. The walk over the property will be followed by an afternoon tea.

TREAT's Annual General Meeting

This year the venue is back at the Yungaburra Community Hall. Nigel Tucker, Director and Senior Environmental Scientist of Biotropica Australia P/L will be our guest speaker and his talk is "Private Sector Perspectives" - see Nigel's abstract below. Annual reports from the President, Treasurer and Nursery Manager will be followed by the election of TREAT office bearers and committee members for the next year. Members are reminded that they must be financial when voting for the new committee. Subscriptions will be accepted at the AGM. A General Meeting follows the AGM. The evening concludes with a supper and plate contributions are appreciated. All are welcome to attend.

Abstract: "The assessment of development projects spanning two countries, management of large infrastructure projects, and facilitating residential/resort developments, present ethical challenges to environmental consultants. Biotropica Australia has been involved in a number of large projects since 2003 and the company has had to walk the minefield of moral dilemmas. My talk will focus on how Biotropica staff use science to ensure that development ethically contributes to solving today's problems and how development puts resources into new and innovative ways of tackling land management problems. Not all the news is good but our experience suggests ethics and money are not mutually exclusive and economics can indeed find a comfortable space to share with environment, in a way which benefits science, art and culture."

Massey Creek field day

Nick Stevens suggested this field day at the Massey Creek planting in March. There has been an expansion of the National Park estate for wildlife corridors in the area and Nick will show us these and talk about the nursery's program for the area. We will also see some older plantings and can discuss the various problems encountered over the years.

Open day at Winfield Park

This is an opportunity to visit the Tablelands Community Revegetation Unit (TCRU) at Winfield Park, another large revegetation nursery. TCRU now assist TREAT with site preparation and maintenance work on the Peterson Creek project.

BRING drinking water, a hat and sunscreen. For further details check the local papers or contact Barbara Lanskey Ph 4091 4468.

Inside this issue

Field Day at Yungaburra

Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor

Frost Follow-up

Bits and Pieces

Trading Trees

Nursery News


Fruit Collection Diary

Kids Page

Collecting and Pressing Plants

This newsletter is kindly sponsored by Biotropica Australia Pty Ltd.»

Field Day at Yungaburra

Barb Lanskey

The weather was very pleasant for our field day on Saturday 14th June at Yungaburra to look at some plantings at Lakeside and Tinaburra.

Mark Heaton led about 20 of us into the Botanical Park at Lakeside where the Wet Tropics Tree Planting Scheme (WTTPS) had cleared Lantana (Lantana camara) and Glycine (Glycine sp.) from an area before planting it to trees in the early 1990s. There was a small forest remnant nearby and pathways and some concrete picnic tables were constructed through the planted area down to the water's edge. It was to be an attractive amenity for the local residents. Mark showed us an early photo of the newly completed picnic table near the remnant.

Now, about 15 years later, the trees have grown well and a canopy cover has excluded grass. With lack of use the paths have become overgrown and the park has a forest atmosphere with lots of seedling tree recruits. There was very little Lantana but Asparagus Fern (Asparagus plumosus) is everwhere. Wild Tobacco (Solanum mauritianum) is also abundant but recently Jenny Maclean from the Tolga Bat Hospital cleared much of it with assistance from a Green Corps team. Spectacled Flying Foxes have been using the park in recent years during their breeding season. Many die from tick paralysis with research implicating Wild Tobacco.

The group wondered about the future of the park and whether it would be better left as it is (the bats like it) or cleaned up and maintained (by whom?) as the originally intended amenity (for whom?).

Coming out of the forest we took a walk along the road edge noting some surviving wattles planted by TREAT in 1984 to stabilise the roadside, tree pruning under the power lines where other trees had recruited among the planted Callistemons and Lilly-pillies, the usual edge weeds and some rubbish thrown among the trees.

From Lakeside we drove to the Recreation Reserve at Tinaburra. The Eacham Shire Council had a plan made for the peninsula and as part of that plan WTTPS planted several large areas with trees. Firstly we looked at the windbreak planting on the southern end. The trees here are mostly Eucalypts and other sclerophyll species with just a few rainforest trees. If left alone the area would probably turn into rainforest and we wondered if it should be occasionally burnt to keep it as open eucalypt forest. Again there were the questions of by whom and for what purpose.

The areas planted further north as far as the caravan park contained a lot of wattles and now have many tree recruits thickening the original plantings. The council keeps the edges of these areas clear, trimming the wattles as necessary. We saw and heard many birds making good use of the plantings.

We then crossed the road and walked over to Stewarts Gully. Here TREAT had planted eucalypts at the water's edge along the length of the gully from the southern end up to the small group of houses. Some of them were lost to a fire before they were established and had to be replaced. Later WTTPS did some site preparation above the trees to allow students from the School for Field Studies to plant more trees. They were helped by Yungaburra Landcare and the planting was widened over a few years and was maintained for a while. These later plantings are now about 6 years old and some trees have grown several metres but most are suffering from grass competition with little canopy cover. If the grass close to the trees could be pulled out and upturned as mulch we felt the trees would respond well especially with the addition of some fertiliser.

We talked about the need for revegetation along creeks and gullies as corridors for wildlife and the importance of a width of at least 20m for safe wildlife movement. It would be ideal if developments took this into account with a requirement for maintenace until the corridors were self-sustaining. While many rural residential owners prefer to plant up their creek and gully areas it takes only one owner (with dogs) along a potential corridor to clear the creek or gully area to make wildlife movement unsafe.

Now it was time for afternoon tea in the shelter shed at the end of the peninsula. The Callistemons planted by TREAT between the railway line posts on either side of the shed were now very effective in hiding them. Barb Walsh had boiled the billy and had brought Joan and James along to share in some chatter with old friends and a very convival time was had by all.

Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor

Barb Lanskey

Queensland Parks and Wildlife (QPW) and TREAT have been working with some of the landowners along Peterson Creek since the late 1980s, helping them plant trees and building up good relationships. When larger funding grants became available in the late 1990s, larger plantings could be done and establishing a 5km wildlife corridor along Peterson Creek between the fragments of Lake Eacham National Park and Curtain Fig National Park became a major TREAT project.

Between the Parks there are 9 landowners and most of them graze cattle. The success of the project depends on the cooperation of the landowners and securing funds for site preparation, some planting costs and maintenance of the plantings.

TREAT and QPW discuss each planting with the landholder involved. Landholder involvement is voluntary. The landholder has to decide how much land he's prepared to give for the project. Together we have to decide just where to put the fencing to protect the planting from the cattle and the points at the creek where the cattle can still have controlled access to water. At these points the ground is cemented near the creek. Some farmers have off-creek watering points for their cattle but they all require at least one cattle access point in case of power or pump failure.

There are plusses and minusses for the landholder. He loses some grazing land but the planting helps control erosion along the creek, helps protect the pastures from wind and provides a shelter belt for cattle. The planting width varies between about 20 - 50m. Because of the meandering creek, in some places the fences may be only 4 - 5m from the stream but in others they are 20m or more away.

The first major planting was done in 1998 and TREAT has been able to secure funding each year since. With yearly plantings the corridor is gradually being established and is now about two thirds complete. Funding has come from the Australian Government's National Heritage Trust's (NHT) funding programs, Threatened Species Network (part of Worldwide Fund for Nature - Australia) and in recent years Terrain NRM, the regional body for Natural Resource Management in the Wet Tropics.

It has always been a problem to secure maintenance funding for the second and third years after a planting. In the tropical environment grasses and legumes have to be kept under control for at least 3 years by which time a canopy cover is hopefully achieved to shade out the weeds. The species mix in plantings includes about 20% pioneers for this purpose. NHT grants have been for a period of 12 or 18 months and haven't allowed for maintenance past the grant period. We are now fortunate to receive yearly funding from Terrain NRM which factors in the maintenance of previous plantings for the second and third years after planting.

Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor is one of the priority projects in the Regional Plan for the Wet Tropics. It is restoring an area of "Mabi" forest (Regional Ecosystem 7.8.3) which is Complex Notophyll Vine Forest occurring on fertile basalt soils in the drier moist area of the Tablelands. Mabi forest is classified as an endangered ecosystem as less than 2% remains. The largest fragment is Curtain Fig National Park. Lake Eacham National Park is on the edge of Mabi Forest.

Plantings over the years have suffered flooding, frost and wind but the corridor can now easily be seen on aerial maps and from Peeramon Road. Several infilling plantings have been done and another is scheduled later this year to replace losses on the southern side of the 2006 plantings on De Tournouer's property. The most recent plantings have been on Williams' property and join to a remnant of Mabi forest which extends along the creek a considerable distance towards Curtain Fig National Park. This remnant has been fenced and early next year some small plantings will be done at the edges around this remnant. The main planting next year will be on the southern side downsteam of Peeramon Road on Mete's property. This is an area already fenced which was set aside for revegetation when the property was divided.

There are significant areas still to be planted: the area from the Williams' remnant to Curtain Fig National Park, the immediate areas either side of Peeramon Road and the connection to Lake Eacham National Park at Lake Barrine Road.

The completed corridor will facilitate the movement of a variety of fauna between the two fragments of National Park. It will also link with other plantings downstream being done by landowners and Yungaburra Landcare. Some monitoring of mammals using the plantings was done in the early years and Amanda Freeman monitored the birds for a period of 7 years. TREAT has a program in place for monitoring water quality but this and vegetation monitoring need more resources than we currently have with volunteers.

To date, approximately 60,000 trees have been planted comprising about 200 species. We've received over $250,000 in funding which has been matched with in-kind contributions from QPW, TREAT and the landowners, especially with thousands of hours of voluntary labour. The project is expected to be completed in 2012 or 2013.

Frost Follow-up

Kylie Freebody

The severe frosts of June-July 2007 had a severe impact on four of the Eacham Shire's young revegetation plantings. These were located in the North Johnstone River catchment (Soley's & Doan's) and the Barron River catchment (Gallo's & Picnic Crossing). An initial assessment of frost damage was carried out between July and September 2007. The assessment showed that these sites, all planted between March and April 2007 except for Doan's which was planted in March 2006, suffered greater than 70% losses from frost (damage ranged from 70 - 92%). Original estimates from this assessment indicated that almost 3ha out of the original 3.5ha planted would need to be replanted at a cost of approximately $33,000, excluding site preparation and irrigation (where required).

Follow-up assessments of deaths were carried out between November 2007 and March 2008 to determine the number of replants that were required at these sites. It was very interesting (and pleasing) to observe that there had been a marked increase in the number of plants reshooting up to 6 months after the frosts. No doubt this coincided with the more favorable moisture conditions with the wet season. Of the three youngest planting sites (3-4 months old when the frosts hit), two - Picnic Crossing and Soley's - had an additional 5% and 6% of trees reshooting respectively. Gallo's planting that we irrigated regularly until the wet season commenced, had 21% of plants reshooting. Of particular interest was Doan's planting, 12 months older than the others. Although initial estimates indicated that 82% of trees had died from the frost, site inspection 6 months on showed that 53% of these had recovered and were growing well (without irrigation).

The final number of trees that the Tablelands Community Revegetation Unit replanted as a result of the 2007 frosts was 6051, 62% of the original estimation. In summary;

Bits and Pieces

Barb Lanskey

Library Resource

The Family and History Group at the Atherton Library have created a folder of information about TREAT. Joan Wright kept a scrapbook of newspaper articles and photos from when TREAT started and she handed this to me when she and James moved to Ozcare. I handed it on to Dawn Schaffer. She and other TREAT members Doris Cartarius and Jill Crawford are in the Family and History Group at the library and they suggested the project, which was completed last year. Joan's newspaper cuttings have all been photocopied for the folder to preserve the original scrapbook. Later newspaper cuttings are included as well and the folder is in chronological order from 1982 till the present. The folder is part of the Local History collection and is available to view on request.

The Family and History Group meet on the first Thursday of the month at the library.


Earlier this year the management committee looked at the costs of producing the TREAT on TAP booklets. Photocopying, external printing and buying another printer were considered. The most economial and practical solution was to buy a colour laser printer for our computer and print the booklets ourselves. TREAT bought a HP 2605 in April for $600 and have produced great looking booklets for TAP. We are also using it to print the information sheets we keep available in the Display Centre, the newsletter labels and various TREAT forms. The cartridges which came with the computer shouldn't need replacing for quite a long time.

Millstream Falls Centenary of Parks

On Saturday 21st June TREAT set up the mobile display at the Centenary of Parks celebrations held at Millstream Falls, Ravenshoe. We had information available and merchandise for sale, and being near the bus stop we had good exposure and a lot of enquiries. The nursery display trees which Nick had brought up for us made our little area more attractive. We scored a couple of new members and sold various merchandise. Thanks to all involved.

Peterson Creek Corridor nomination

TREAT's Peterson Creek Wildlife Corridor project has been nominated with the Ecological Society of Australia (ESA) to be considered as one of the twenty most outstanding restoration projects in Australasia. ESA has a new partnership project with the Society for Ecological Restoration International (SERI) which is "to find the 20 most outstanding on-ground ecosystem restoration projects in Australasia (land, water and atmosphere) and feature them via a weblink to SERI's Global Restoration website ( in time for 2009's international conferences of SERI and INTECOL (International Association for Ecology) (which will be held for the first time in Australia)".

Alastair Freeman did the hard yards of filling in most of the application for us. If successful, we'll be encouraged to develop an online report of the project for hyperlinking to an interactive map on the Global Restoration Network websiteby 2009. That would be great publicity!

TREAT nomination for Women's Weekly award

Helen Irwin, project officer with Terrain NRM and a TREAT member, noticed the Women's Weekly awards for Environmental Heroes and thought she'd nominate TREAT for one. She wrote a glowing article about our work and added photos of Peterson Creek, members potting up in the nursery and Tony helping a youngster at a planting. There are 12 awards to be given, and if successful TREAT will receive $10,000. That is definitely worth a try - thank you Helen!

Betta Real Estate's first cheque to TREAT

In the last newsletter I mentioned Betta Real Estate's sales representatives on the Tablelands (Jo Doecke and Belinda Dalton) intended donating $200 from each commission on Tableland sales to TREAT's Environmenal Benefit Fund. On Friday 18th July they'll hand over a cheque for $400 from their first 2 sales. I think it can be a publicity occasion to encourage further sales and we hope to have the media present. Jo and Belinda certainly deserve a TREAT morning tea!

Wildlife friendly fencing

Tolga Bat Hospital has now produced an eye-catching brochure on Wildlife Friendly Fencing for distribution around Australia. Jenny had given a bundle to TREAT and members with acreage are encouraged to read the brochure or visit the website.

Tony Irvine

Many people know Tony is very ill and wonder how he's been going since he was flown to Townsville on 2nd May.

Tony is a fighter and has had four chemotherapy treatments for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He is now a day patient and staying with Helen at the Freemason's Leukaemia Village in the hopital grounds. Helen and Tony very much appreciate all the letters, cards, emails and phone calls from friends. If Tony is well enough he is able to see some friends who visit. There are further treatments to come but we all hope they'll be back to the Tablelands soon and Tony will get a long remission.

Trading Trees

Gavin Kay
Degree Celcius Officer, Terrain NRM

Carbon Trading is a subject receiving a lot of attention these days, both nationally and internationally. What you might not realize is that there is a regional carbon pooling initiative happening here in the Wet Tropics, right now! Degree Celsius is an initiative being undertaken by Terrain NRM and partner Biocarbon to establish a carbon pool as part of the region's natural resource management activities. Where the cost of entry into the carbon market may be prohibitive for the individual, pooling the carbon makes its sale a viable prospect for even the smallest of landholders.

But Degree Celsius is not just about carbon. Although there is a lot of discussion about greenhouse gases and their negative impact on our environment, it is important to pay attention to the other critical environmental services such as biodiversity conservation and protection of water quality. So Degree Celsius has decided to pool carbon which has biodiversity values and through doing so aims to raise the profile of the wider range of environmental services, as well as earning a higher price for this 'premium carbon'. For this reason, we have chosen to verify our regional carbon pool against some of the highest standards in the world, the "Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standards". As this name suggests, these standards are not just concerned with the carbon sequestration aspects of a project, but also the contribution it makes to biodiversity conservation and its social impacts.

Degree Celsius began by working with a number of interested landholders to develop a rigorous field methodology for calculating just how much carbon is stored in re-vegetated areas. With our approach having now received an in-principle OK from the independent verifiers, we have recently made a public call for interested people on freehold land to become involved, and include their vegetated areas in the regional carbon pool.

Vegetated areas may fall into three categories, active replanting, assisted natural regeneration or avoided deforestation. Active replanting includes areas that were cleared prior to 1990, and since then have been actually planted. Assisted natural regeneration refers to areas which were cleared prior to 1990, but have regenerated naturally due to a landholder for example excluding cattle or doing some weed control. Avoided deforestation refers to areas which contain remnant forest that is not protected through government legislation i.e. it could be clear felled at any time.

Currently we are in the process of registering support for this initiative. Once landholders are on the list, I will be contacting them for an initial chat, to answer questions and find out a little about the property. If the landholder is still interested, I will come and visit in person, answer more questions if necessary and do some initial assessment of the carbon potential. Further field work will provide us with more detailed information about the carbon content on each landholder's property.

The ideal result when the numbers have been crunched is that landowners have a verified amount of carbon in their standing vegetation that they are eligible to receive payment for - usually an upfront payment for what is already there, and then annual payments as the carbon sequestered increases over time. It's an exciting new venture that has great potential to provide some income to people who are investing time and effort in looking after our environment.

If you are interested in finding out more about the Degree Celsius initiative, give me a call on 0403 537 857 or send me an email on

Nursery News

Nick Stevens

The nursery has been a hive of activity over the past three months. As well as the usual potting, weeding, pruning and sizing work a couple of larger jobs were also undertaken. Special thanks go to staff members Peter, Darren and Kevin, and the Green Corps team from Atherton whose assistance enabled us to complete the long overdue replacement of weed matting in the nursery bays as well as adding sheets of steel mesh to plant racks throughout the nursery. This was a great team effort requiring many trays of plants to be moved many times. The addition of the mesh to the racks has solved the long term issue of misshaped nursery trays and part filled trays falling through the racks.

Over 35 volunteers helped plant 3,000 trees at Massey Creek on what was a great day for planting. The weather was cool and overcast, even foggy at times, and the rain held off for most of the morning. Some good showers were received over the remainder of the weekend and the trees had a good watering in. The traditional TREAT BBQ and a hot cuppa were enjoyed by all after the planting.

Thirty eight volunteers rolled up for the Mamu Rainforest Canopy Walkway planting on the 19th April consisting of TREAT members, volunteers from the Cassowary Coast Regional Council Community Reveg. Nursery and other interested people from the Innisfail and Palmerston area. Around 2,000 trees were planted as part of the landscaping in the carpark area and a large buffer planting on the lower side of the carpark. After a cuppa, EPA staff Ray Plasto and Paul Bikauniks gave the interested gathering a quick talk on the near completed canopy walkway project, followed by a walk along one of the completed sections.

Many thanks to all those volunteers who were able to attend the Massey Ck and Mamu Rainforest Canopy Walkway plantings, your efforts in assisting with the conservation and presentation of our Parks are greatly appreciated.

Over the next three months there will be a number of (mostly temporary) staffing changes at the nursery.

First of all we farewelled Nick Teiwsen from our unit. Nick has been battling the weather and Cyclone Larry damage for many months now, and he and his small crew have been progressively clearing many of the Misty Mountains walking trails. Nick has accepted a permanent transfer to the Lake Eacham Management Unit and we wish him well in his new appointment.

As the second permanent staff change, I'd like to offer a warm welcome to Cliff Pearce. Cliff has transferred to us from Cape York and fills Nick's place. Right now we are busy showing him the ropes.

Peter Snodgrass has accepted an offer to relieve as Ranger in Charge and will be managing the Lake Eacham Management Unit until the end of September 2008, Darren Caulfield will be relieving in Peter's position here at the nursery and Kev Mackay is to complete the crew by filling in for Darren.

Finally I'll be relieved by Barry Schmith when I take leave for six weeks from the 21st July until the 1st September.

A field day will be held at Massey Creek on Saturday 27th September. It will be a good opportunity to see how the older plantings, around ten years, have established and how the newer plantings are coping and to get a glimpse of some future sites to be replanted as part of this linkage project.

TREAT on TAP - Malanda Year 3

Barb Lanskey

Teacher Marie Fraser organised with us a full program for two Year 3 classes from Malanda State School who visited the nursery on Friday 20th May. While one class stayed near the ranger's station to observe and note the surrounding environment (and have morning tea), the other class came along to the nursery. Pauline and Robin took one half of the class through the Display Centre (with a quiz to complete afterwards) while Rosemarie and I took the other half up to the nursery area. There we gave them a short tour of the nursery, showing them some seed cleaning and all the different seedlings in the germination room. Here the cages which serve as extra protection of some seeds from rats and mice always get a mention. Then they potted up some little plants and did some weeding outside in the hardening bays (hands-on activities which the children love). The half class activities were reversed and then the classes were reversed.

This all took a couple of hours (plus a bit more as we get so enthusiastic), after which Alan led both classes on a short walk into the forest before their lunch break. Alan runs wildlife tours and apparently there was so much to interest the students and so many questions at the Proteaceae Walk they didn't get very far into the forest. Thanks to the TAP team who helped make the morning so enjoyable.

Fruit Collection Diary April - June 2008

SpeciesCommon NameRegional Ecosystem
Aceratium concinnum Hard Carabeen 7.3.10
Acmena hemilampra Blush Satinash 7.3.10
Acmena smithii Lillipilli 7.8.2, 7.8.3, 7.8.4
Acronichya acidula Lemon Aspen 7.8.3
Acronichya crassipetala Crater Aspen 7.8.4
Alloxylon flammeum Pink Silky Oak 7.8.2
Alpinnia caerulea Common Ginger 7.8.2
Archirhodomyrtus beckleri Rose Myrtle 7.8.2
Archontopheonix alexandrae Feather Palm 7.3.10
Atractocarpus fitzalanii Brown Gardenia 7.3.10
Dianella caerulea Flax Lily 7.8.2
Endiandra montana Coach Walnut 7.8.1, 7.3.10
Eupomatia laurina Bolwarra 7.8.1, 7.8.2, 7.3.10
Ficus pleurocarpa Banana Fig 7.8.2
Geissois biagiana Brush Mahogany 7.8.2
Glochidion sumatranum Buttonwood 7.3.10
Helicia nortoniana Norton's Silky Oak 7.8.2
Mallotus paniculatus Turn in the wind 7.8.2
Melastoma malabathricum Blue Tongue 7.8.1
Mellicope elleryana Evodia 7.8.1, 7.8.2, 7.8.3, 7.3.10
Mischocarpus lachnocarpus Woolly Pear fruit 7.8.2, 7.8.3, 7.8.4
Nauclea orientalis Leichhart Pine 7.3.10
Pararchidendron pruinosum Tulip Siris 7.8.3
Pittosporum rubiginosum Hairy Red Pittosporum 7.8.3
Pittosporum venulosum Rusty Pittospurum 7.8.4
Rhodomyrtus pervagata Mallet Wood 7.8.2
Rhus taitensis Sumac 7.3.10
Syzygium canicortex Yellow satinash 7.8.2, 7.8.4
Xanthophyllum octandrum MacIntyre's Boxwood 7.8.2

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