TREAT Newsletter Storm Season October - December 2013

Coming Events

Date & TimeEventLocation
Sat 19 Oct 9 am - 12.30 pmTree planting WorkshopFreeman's property, Cutler Road
Sat 2 Nov 9 am - 12.30 pmIdentification/ propagation WorkshopQPWS nursery, McLeish Road
Sat 7 Dec 7.30 am startPlanting - 1000 trees Tropical Tree DayBonadio's property, Gillies Highway

Tree planting workshop

This is the first year this workshop is being held. It is free and seeks to help those who need practical advice about site preparation, planting trees and maintaining them afterwards. It will be at Ian Freeman's property and TREAT will provide a morning tea. Peter Snodgrass, Ian Freeman and Mark McCaffrey will be giving practical demonstrations following the theory. Participants will be able to walk to various areas of Ian's plantings to learn and observe. If you wish to attend, please register with Barbara Lanskey on 4091 4468 or the QPWS nursery on 4095 3406, as places are limited.

Identification/propagation workshop

This popular workshop is held annually at the Lake Eacham nursery and is free. Alan and Maria Gillanders demonstrate how to identify trees by observing different leaf characteristics, and Peter Snodgrass demonstrates the different seed types and how to germinate and grow them. It is held in two sessions separated by a morning tea provided by TREAT. If you wish to attend, please register with Barbara Lanskey on 4091 4468 or the QPWS nursery on 4095 3406, as places are limited.

Tropical Tree Day planting

TREAT has been helping with tree planting on the Bonadios' property to celebrate Tropical Tree Day since 2006. This year more of the bank area has been prepared and about 1000 trees will be planted. Meet at the Bonadios' property on the Gillies Highway to be ferried to the site - follow the signs. Bring a hat, sunscreen and water, plus gloves and a trowel if you have them. There will be a barbecue afterwards.

Inside this issue

A Landscape Rehabilitation Industry

Thiaki Reforestation Experiment Update

AGM and New Management Committee

The Leech Circus - can leeches help in Tree-kangaroo discoveries?

The New Terrain

Nursery News

Fruit Collection Diary

This newsletter is kindly sponsored by Biotropica Australia Pty Ltd.»

A Landscape Rehabilitation Industry

Dave Hudson

For a few years now, ever since Green Jobs became a bit of a buzzword, I have been trying to come to grips with the fact that there is no recognisable 'industry'. This was really brought home to me when I went to a 'Green Jobs' roadshow presented by the ACTU (Australian Council of Trade Unions), ACF (Australian Conservation Foundation) and the Climate Institute. Most of what they talked about were established trades jobs doing something with an environmental flavour; e.g. electricians installing solar panels, plumbers installing water saving devices etc etc. I asked them about my industry (landscape restoration/rehabilitation) and they got a bit uncomfortable, admitting that it was important but they hadn't had the funds to look at it, and they couldn't work out how to engage with us. They couldn't find a peak body or any sort of national structure. Fair point. Of course there are various national landcare bodies and the regional NRM (Natural Resource Management) bodies, but they don't really fit the bill.

Back in 1989, a CSIRO paper 'REGREENING AUSTRALIA: the Environmental, Economic, and Social Benefits of Restoration' was written by Richard Eckersley, and it was a bit of a revelation. Way back then he identified the need to develop a permanent skilled workforce. A couple of sections stated:

"The report is not advocating a huge public works program, run by government, that adopts a single system of tree planting across the continent. To be effective, the program must be tailored to the particular needs of a region, managed at a local level, and carried out using, where necessary, private contractors.

The program would not be a job creation program, undertaken to occupy armies of unskilled unemployed. The problems and opportunities are real. To be economically feasible and to achieve its objectives, the program would have to be made as effective and as efficient as possible. The jobs involved would be as legitimate and as useful as any other, and in many cases would require training and skills."

This year, 2013, Richard Eckersley wrote a report for the Australia21 organisation. (Australia21 is an independent, non-profit organisation whose core purpose is multidisciplinary research and inquiry on issues of strategic importance to Australia in the 21st century. (

The report is titled: REPAIRING AND PREPARING AUSTRALIA'S LANDSCAPES FOR GLOBAL CHANGE: WHY WE MUST DO MUCH MORE: A report on an expert roundtable, held at the University of Melbourne on 21 February 2013, to consider the question: 'What are the benefits of large-scale reforestation and revegetation, and how can they best be achieved?'

One section of the report strongly makes some really interesting observations and recommendations:

"There was considerable discussion - and agreement - on the need for a landscape regeneration 'industry' that would produce the necessary capacity to implement policy, increase professionalism, and provide technical services, education and extension.

Success in this whole exercise would be if the 'revegetation industry' achieves the same status in Australia as the mining industry. You can count this as a number of things but it's a cultural shift in that revegetation and sustainable land management are seen as part of our identity, what we do, both for rural people and city people. It also needs to be seen as an economic activity based on sustained, long-term investment through public-private partnerships.

In the same way that realising economic benefits from mining depends on public investment in infrastructure, training and skills and private capital in resource extraction, large-scale revegetation and land repair will require public investment in green infrastructure and private investment in a range of benefits.

If it's the case that government is going to step up with large amounts of money for large-scale work, then there is a bunch of structural problems in the system. Indeed, the revegetation industry doesn't really exist. It's a bunch of sheltered workshops and cottage industries around the place.

We really need to develop a whole level of professionalism. . if you take the mining industry analogy, we need the revegetation services business to be there, with all that technical expertise, just like we would expect from other sectors, rather than it being seen as a job for volunteers.

A landscape 'industry' could provide jobs almost anywhere in Australia, so making an important contribution to social and economic stability in the event of global economic troubles. This job creation would support rural communities and help the unemployed in urban areas. The 1989 CSIRO report noted 'regreening Australia' could be an important component of guaranteeing people an adequate income in return for doing socially useful work. The report stimulated programs such as the current Green Corps, which give young people work experience and skills."

The current Green Corps is barely recognisable from the original Green Corps, which commenced in 1997 and was itself one in a long line of similar schemes over 20 odd years - one of the first being LEAP (Landcare Environment and Action Program) back in the early 1990s. Green Corps is about to be superseded by the Coalition's proposed new Green Army. The Coalition's website states:

"The Coalition will create a standing 'Green Army' that will gradually build to a 15,000 strong environmental workforce. We will create and properly resource the Green Army, as a larger and more lasting version of the former Green Corps. It will be Australia's largest-ever environmental deployment. It will mark the first time that Australia has approached environmental remediation with the same seriousness and level of organisation that we have long brought to bushfire preparedness and other local and regional priorities. "

Unfortunately this policy will do little to advance the development of our industry. It will adopt a one-size-fits-all approach, using a standard model with teams of 9 young people plus a supervisor working for 6 months whilst also undergoing very basic environmental training. So every 6 months thousands of partly trained jobseekers will swamp an already miniscule employment market. What we need are real long term jobs, not temporary training positions.

Ironically the Coalition also has a policy for a new loan scheme to support apprentices. This policy states that only apprentices employed in occupations included in the National Skills Needs List will be eligible. Our industry does not even rate a mention in this extensive list. The only skill on the list that comes even close to Landscape Rehabilitation is Landscape Gardening, and they are really chalk and cheese; they require very different skill sets (we don't do a lot of paving or retaining walls etc in our corridors!).

So 15,000 young people a year will gain some work experience and training in a vocation for which there is virtually no demand. Also, in putting all these temporary teams on the ground, they will be taking work away from the few commercial operators currently battling to make a living who could provide that employment.

The program is well intentioned but poorly designed and could be made far more effective by dramatically cutting the number of temporary trainee positions and using the funds to create a proper structure as recommended in the Australia21 report. This would provide better outcomes for the participants, the environment and the community. Governments of all persuasion really need to consult with the people who have a better grasp of the issues and challenges involved in restoring our landscapes.

Thiaki Reforestation Experiment Update

Penny van Oosterzee and Noel Preece

This is an update of our reforestation project at Thiaki south of Malanda on the Upper Barron Road. The location is 22 km south of Atherton, at approximately 145° 51'E 17° 43'S and if you check it out on Google Earth you can see our 'stripes'. From the road it looks like a giant art installation down the main valley. Hopefully this article will help interpret the patterns that are emerging.

In 2009 we were successful in being awarded an Australian Research Council Grant with a number of university partners to help answer some pressing questions. Very little replicated experimental research into revegetation from grassed paddock to forest has been done anywhere in the tropical regions of the world. Together with the reported high establishment and maintenance costs, the results of mixed plantings over the past two decades for ecosystem services have been variable, often with unsatisfactory outcomes. So we are asking three main questions:

The project aims to provide useful guidelines on how to reforest most cost-effectively for carbon sequestration and biodiversity. This will give landholders a viable alternative livelihood, and allow business to confidently invest in the land sector for biodiverse carbon abatement.

The Yasi Planting

In January 2011, we planted around 27,000 seedlings in 48 quarter-hectare plots. We did this in a week, using a team of professional planters, who used planting spades to plant the seedlings in sprayed rows. Some of the planters achieved 1200 trees per day on better ground, and on average they planted 750 trees per day. We finished 3 days before Cyclone Yasi, hence the name of the planting.

The experimental design of the Yasi Planting (which covers 20 hectares) compares plots with one, six and 24 species, and 1.75 and 3.0 metre spacings. There are also two types of controls; one with weed control (but no plantings) and one without weed control (just grass). This explains the checker-board pattern you see from Upper Barron Road where some plots appear to have few or no trees and some have many. We strip sprayed so that the ground was not laid bare as we were concerned about erosion and exposure and consequent drying of the ground, which is detrimental to the sensitive seedlings. A good thing too as it turned out, given the >200 km/hr winds and driving rain the seedlings were subjected to so soon after planting.

Preliminary Results

Overall we have had about 66% success rate in the Yasi Plantings, with a range between 40% and 90%. The 2010 plantings had around 90% survival, and the more recent Biodiversity Plantings of March 2013 also had between 90 and 95% survival in the first 6 months, the period of greatest mortality. By comparing the different plantings, we have been able to discover that the lower survival rates in 2011 were probably due to poor planting technique by some planters and insufficient watering of the seedlings prior to planting.

We have tested the use of a spade with forestry tubes, against using an auger with forestry tubes and found very little difference in growth and survival (Preece, van Oosterzee & Lawes, 2013). New measurements in 2013 show these differences to disappear almost completely. Significantly, using the spade took one quarter of the time of using the auger, with associated major savings in cost.

We also studied a number of older plantings across the tablelands (Preece, Crowley, Lawes & van Oosterzee, 2012) and found that the plantings produced substantial amounts of biomass and carbon sequestration, even in the early years. An interesting finding from this study was that small trees contribute around 15% to the total of the forest plantings, which has been underestimated previously. We also found that wider spaced planted trees grew bigger in the same time period than closely spaced trees, a fact known to foresters for decades. Of great importance to forest owners wishing to make some money from 'carbon plantings' was that we were able to demonstrate that the national carbon accounting method developed by the federal government significantly underestimated the amount of carbon stored in planted forests. This has been acknowledged in a recent study by CSIRO to which we contributed (Paul et al. 2013).

Wood density also has a strong effect on growth and survival rates. Higher wood density trees are slower growing than lower wood density trees, which is well known by planters. But trees with higher wood density are also better survivors, not only in the early stages of a planting, but also in the longer term and through periods of drought, so are worth having in a planting. We are writing another paper on this and it should be published next year.

We are about to do a thorough survey of natural recruitment. We have very early results from a year after the planting that show over 100 natural recruits in 6 hectares. Recent observations suggest that the rate of natural recruits is much higher, but we will have to count these before we can report on them. One thing we can say for sure: there is practically no recruitment in the unsprayed grass areas.

The Biodiversity Fund Plantings

Supported by the Biodiversity Fund, early this year we planted 11,000 seedlings in three days, using the same approach as the Yasi Plantings. We are using these plantings to fill in some of the main gaps between the Yasi Plantings. We are also testing, using a pair wise design of eight replicates, whether there is any difference in survival and growth between a complete spray and strip spraying. Although it is only 6 months since the planting, survival rate of the Biodiversity Fund Plantings appears to have been fantastic.

Part of the 2013 plantings

Part of the 2013 plantings

Associated research

Ant communities are good indicators of the restoration process.

Honours student Anthony Moore found a clear relationship between ant species richness and the age of rainforest restoration from sites varying between one and 24 years old. He also found a startling relationship between the probability of one species of Pheidole being present and the age of the rainforest. There is very little probability of the species being present in restoration aged less than 10 years and 60% probability of the species being present in a 50 year old rainforest stand. Anthony was awarded First Class Honours from Charles Darwin University for this ground-breaking project.

Bees and flies show strong differences between landscape elements.

PhD student Toby Smith collected 44 species of bees and an unexpected 154 species of flies. He is finalising his thesis but his work is showing that bee species richness is a great indicator of forest fragment size; the smaller the fragment the fewer the bees, and presumably biodiversity, you're likely to have. We're not sure what we are going to do with all the new species of flies, but we'll definitely be judicious with the swat!

Melomys, Rats and Marsupials.

Honours student Tegan Whitehead, studying at James Cook University, is investigating species richness and abundance in grassy paddocks and forest plantings of different ages. Tegan has found some interesting patterns. The ungrazed grassed paddocks and plantings less then 3 years old are rich in Grassland Melomys, Canefield Rats and the introduced house mouse. The rainforests and older plantings are rich in Fawn-footed Melomys and White-tailed Rats. Tegan presented her results to an audience at James Cook University in September 2013.

Dung beetles and carbon.

Mia Derhé is doing her PhD studies (through Lancaster University and Charles Darwin University) on a number of properties in the district, including on Thiaki. Mia is looking at the nutrient cycling and biodiversity of forests and plantings, focusing on dung beetles, mammals and leaf decay. She has set up 20 plots in the district, and is studying how nutrients such as carbon move through the environment from leaves to mammals to dung beetles and into the soil. Her studies will go for a few more years, but her progress has been substantial so far.

With the diversity of research projects and a replicated planting covering 40 hectares, the Thiaki Reforestation Project is one of the largest of its kind not only in Australia, but worldwide. Not surprisingly, there is increasing interest in the site as an established base for research, and we have a large number of questions that still need to be addressed.

If you would like copies of the papers we have published, please contact Noel or Penny on 0407 996 953.


Preece, N.D., van Oosterzee, P., Lawes, M.J. (2013) Planting methods matter for cost-effective rainforest restoration. Ecological Management & Restoration 14, 63-66.

Preece, N.D., Crowley, G.M., Lawes, M.J., van Oosterzee, P. (2012) Comparing above-ground biomass among forest types in the Wet Tropics: Small stems and plantation types matter in carbon accounting. Forest Ecology and Management 264, 228-237.

Paul et al. (2013) Improved estimation of biomass accumulation by environmental planting and mallee plantings using FullCAM., Report for Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagships Canberra.

AGM and New Management Committee

Barb Lanskey

There was a poor attendance at the Annual General Meeting on 13th September, which was a pity considering the guest speaker Campbell Clarke gave a very interesting overview of the Wet Tropics Management Authority's (WTMA) 'Making Connections' project. WTMA recently produced a glossy booklet on the project and these were available at the AGM. The booklet illustrates the landscape improvements made by the project over the last couple of years and promotes the benefits of restoration projects. Copies are still available at the nursery.

The annual reports and election of office bearers to the management committee proceeded as usual.

The management committee for the next year is:

There are 4 new faces on the committee. Mandy Bormolini is a chartered accountant and has been understudying our previous treasurer, Carmel Panther, for some months. She and her family own a property near Tarzali, moving up here from Cairns a few years ago. Carmel has done a great job since 2008 but is intending to move south to live. Alison Eaton came to Australia seven years ago to work in tourism, from a forestry background in New Zealand. She moved to the Tablelands two years ago. She has recently been successful with grant applications for Malanda Landcare and we hope she can also be successful for TREAT. Michael Cole-King has spent much of his life in Africa and moved to Queensland 12 years ago. He has been coming to TREAT on and off since 2004. He worked with revegetation groups down south but is now living on the Tablelands. Alan Gillanders has been involved with TREAT since its beginning and was on the management committee for many years till the mid-1990s. He currently runs a wildlife tours business in Yungaburra.

Following the AGM there was a general meeting which allows ordinary members to voice concerns. At this meeting it was moved that TREAT be pro-active in weed education through the media. The evening concluded with a supper of goodies.

The Leech Circus - can leeches help in Tree-kangaroo discoveries?

Sigrid Heise-Pavlov

Nobody really likes leeches. They sneak under your clothes, steal your blood and leave blood spots and itchy scars behind. But they can be loved and are wonderful creatures to study. This is what one of the students at the Centre for Rainforest Studies at the School for Field Studies, Brone Lobichusky, discovered.

She heard that researchers at Copenhagen Zoo and the University of Copenhagen had discovered that blood-sucking leeches can hold the blood from their last meal for at least four months after ingestion. This blood contains the DNA of their prey and can be used to identify the animal they were feeding on. Researchers from Copenhagen tested the method in the jungles of Vietnam. They gathered 25 leeches and examined the blood they had taken from their prey. Very surprising results were obtained. Among them was the discovery of the presence of a Striped Rabbit (Nesolagus timminsi) that ecologists were unable to detect during 2000 nights of camera surveillance; also proof of the Small-toothed Ferret Badger which is hard to distinguish from other closely related badgers.

Brone had heard about the difficulties to spot and track down our elusive tree-kangaroos and started to wonder whether leeches could help us increase our knowledge of their whereabouts. This would mean collecting leeches from areas which potentially could be inhabited by tree-kangaroos. One of the researchers from Copenhagen informed Brone that researchers currently obtain leeches by walking through the forest and checking themselves occasionally for crawling or attached leeches. The leeches are then removed and taken to the laboratory for analysis. This process not only takes time but also requires willing volunteers. Who wants to go out to get sucked on? Most importantly, collected leeches may have taken human blood, resulting in contamination of the blood the leech has taken from a previous prey. The most intact DNA in a leech is that of its last meal. So Brone quickly realised that a method was needed to collect leeches without human interference. How could that be done?

How do leeches actually find their prey? Leeches use mechanoreception and chemoreception to locate their prey. Their bodies are covered in minute hairs called sensilla that enable them to feel vibrations and detect heat. When they try to locate their prey (and you may have seen this) leeches fully extend themselves in order to maximise these sensilla areas. Leeches also have eye spots called ocelli that can perceive changes in light intensity. As well, leeches can smell and taste carbon dioxide and certain chemicals in blood using chemoreceptors that are located in their lip.

Could we use these stimuli to attract leeches to a spot where we simply collect them and get the blood from their last meal? What would be the best time to attract leeches - night or day?

Brone decided to test which stimuli attract the most leeches and whether these stimuli should be provided at night or during the day to be most effective.

First of all she needed leeches and it took a bit of persuasion to get volunteer students to walk through forests after dark in short pants, checking for leeches every 50 metres. Leeches were then brought to Brone who placed them in small plastic containers.

To see whether leeches are attracted to heat, simulating a warm body, Brone placed a 5 watt heating pad (bought in a pet shop) on one side of a test container. To see whether leeches are attracted to blood, Brone soaked a sponge in pig blood from a local abattoir. To see whether they are attracted to sweat (like mosquitos) she placed a sock she had worn for 24 hours into one end of a test container. To see whether they like a dark environment, Brone constructed a black cave (using black garbage bags) at one end of a test container. Brone also combined the stimuli, for instance by heating up the pig blood in a microwave.

And the show could begin!

Leeches were set in the middle of a container with one of the stimuli and Brone watched them for 20 minutes. She recorded whether they were 'sensing', stretching themselves with their heads in the air. She also recorded whether they were placing their heads onto various spots on the bottom of the container while stationary or whether they actually moved. For each behaviour she recorded the direction, whether it was towards the provided stimulus or away from it.

Leeches Heat pad and sponge with pig blood for heat and blood combination Leeches White sock for sweat test

Heat pad and sponge with pig blood for heat and blood combination; White sock for sweat test

Brone was with her leech 'circus' for many days, testing many leeches. She also tested them at night, sitting hour after hour in the laboratory of the research centre.

And the leeches finally gave away their secrets. Leeches are more active at night, so their collection would be more efficient at night. They also like blood and sweat and a combination of sweat and heat. That makes sense as these stimuli are clearly emitted from the warm body of a vertebrate.

So if you set a leech trap at night and bait it with blood and sweat and provide a heat source, you may be able to collect a lot of them. You don't need a human body and that makes it more comfortable for researchers to get their subjects and also avoids contaminating the blood of the leeches' last meal with the blood of human collectors.

So can leeches help us find tree-kangaroos? Probably. We just need to build a trap using the most effective stimuli and place it in areas we want to check for tree-kangaroos. But this is only part of the story. The blood and its DNA have to be extracted in a laboratory so we can finally prove if a leech was feeding on a tree-kangaroo.

Future research on tree-kangaroos could utilise some of these newly emerging non-invasive methods to gather more information about these cryptic animals - and leeches may be part of it.

Aren't you looking at leeches now through different eyes?

The New Terrain

Carole Sweatman
(CEO, Terrain NRM)

Terrain NRM (Terrain) is one of 54 regional bodies across Australia, working to look after our natural resources. It is a community-based, not-for-profit organisation that builds partnerships with community, government, researchers and other Natural Resource Management (NRM) organisations to secure the health of our natural resources.

One of the most significant challenges facing Terrain and its partners is funding cycles and uncertainty. Terrain has been working hard at state and commonwealth levels to influence funding programs and convince government of the importance of considering regional and local priorities alongside national priorities. However, funding arrangements for NRM in the coming years are still unclear and are, of course, compounded with the change of government.

Knowing that virtually all our NRM funding from the Caring for our Country program (which includes Reef Rescue) was ending June 30th, and considering future government uncertainties, the Board decided last year that it was opportune to re-think Terrain's direction and focus. Over many months, our Chair (Mike Berwick) and I met with community groups and partners to discuss the role they felt Terrain should play within the region. This resulted in the release of Terrain's new Strategic Plan 2012-2017 (available on our website

To ensure that we can best deliver on Terrain's new direction, and also to prepare for the uncertainty of funding arrangements and priorities post June 2013, we also underwent a comprehensive organisational review and restructure. The resulting new structure is much leaner than in the past, in order to maximise opportunities for funding to flow to groups, partners and organisations to deliver NRM across the region.

A key priority of the new Strategic Plan is the provision of equitable support across the wide network of community groups, organisations and partners in line with regional NRM priorities. Specifically, our 5-year Goal is: "Community-based NRM groups are autonomous and prosperous and benefit from Terrain's region-wide enabling support."

A great outcome of the past months is that the regional base level funding coming from the Australian Government recognises the importance of supporting community, and hence is now directly funding us to support community partners in a number of ways:

A network of Community Partnership staff will provide much of this support, as well as be a conduit for information about upcoming funding opportunities. For the Atherton Tablelands, that person is Evizel Seymour (0448 010 019); for the Upper Herbert, we have Bob Stewart (0418 733 147) on the job, and Steve Bailey (0409 265 160) is now the person dedicated (half time) to the Cairns Urban area. It is fantastic that Upper Herbert and Cairns Urban will now receive support, as these are two areas that have not benefitted from a dedicated Terrain person in the past.

In addition to our regional base level funding, Terrain has been successful in securing a new Reef Rescue Program for the next 5 years. Grants for farmers wanting to improve their practices will open within the next few months.

We are also doing a major overhaul of our Regional NRM Plan, to make it much more relevant, interactive and easily accessed. The Community Partnership staff will inform our community partners about opportunities to participate in this process. There are strong signals that the new Commonwealth Government is going to reinstate the importance of the regional plans for guiding funding decisions, so it is a great time to make sure that this plan strongly reflects community aspirations.

Any of our Community Partnership staff can provide more information about the changes Terrain has made, and what this means for community, as well as existing and upcoming funding opportunities. We believe that the future for NRM in the Wet Tropics region is going to be very bright.

Nursery News

Nick Stevens

Preparations have commenced for upcoming plantings, with repairs to fences and initial site spraying at Massey Creek, and site spraying at Ian Freeman's property for TREAT's Peterson Creek project plantings. Further spraying and removal of wild tobacco will be undertaken over the coming months at Massey Creek to enable replanting of the 2012 planting site damaged by frost, drought and cattle. We expect to replant up to 2000 trees as a result of the damage, and will hold a community tree planting event in March 2014 to replant the site.

The following tables are a summary of the nursery annual production figures provided to TREAT at their September 13 AGM held in Yungaburra, and include three year comparison figures.

Nursery Production2010-20112011-20122012-2013
Volunteer hours at nursery and Display Centre4,7205,0105,330
Total potting (includes repotting)63,00066,00068,000
Total write-outs28,00032,00027,000
Stock held at annual August stocktake62,00064,00064,000
Tree Distribution2011-20122012-2013
TREAT members7,5009,100
TREAT projects7,0007,500

Fruit Collection Diary July - September 2013

SpeciesCommon NameCollection Location/
Regional Ecosystem
Alectron tormentosusHairy Bird's Eye 7.3.10
Beilschmiedia oligandra Ivory Walnut 7.8.2
Chionanthus ramiflora Northern Olive 7.8.3
Cinnamomum laubattii Pepperwood 7.8.2
Cryptocarya grandis White Laurel 7.8.4
Cryptocarya mackinnoniana Rusty Laurel 7.8.2
Cryptocarya oblata Tarzali Silkwood 7.8.4
Cryptocarya onoprienkoana Rose Walnut 7.8.4
Davidsonia pruriens Davidson's Plum 7.8.3
Endiandra sankeyana Sankey's Walnut 7.8.2
Ficus crassipes Round Leaf Banana Fig 7.8.4
Flindersia acuminata Silver Maple 7.8.2
Litsea leefeana Brown Bollywood 7.8.2
Mischocarpus macrocarpus Large-fruited Mischocarp 7.8.2
Olea piniculata Pigeonberry Ash 7.8.2
Pitaviaster haplophyllus Yellow Aspen 7.8.2
Polyscias elegans Celerywood 7.8.2
Rhus taitensis Sumac 7.3.10
Syzygium gustavioides Watergum 7.8.2
Xanthophyllum octandrum Yellow Boxwood 7.8.2
Zanthoxylum ovalifolium Little Yellowwood 7.8.2

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